FAKULTI PENDIDIKAN DAN BAHASA
SARJANA MUDA PENGAJARAN
SEMESTER JANUARI 2011
HBMT2203
TEACHING MATHEMATICS IN YEAR THREE
NO. MATRIKULASI : 780806086772002
NO. KAD PENGNEALAN : 780806086772
NO. TELEFON : 0132579164
EMEL : zulfa78@gmail.com
PUSAT PEMBELAJARAN : MELAKA
Introduction
According to Piaget (1962), children play to express ideas, feelings and emotions, they will stay calm and they will be healthy as well. They also can use the extra energy to play physically indoor or outdoor. Playing congkak will prepare them for problem solving, cognitive, social, manipulative that will donate to intellectual development. They also sharpen their cognitive, psychomotor and social skills while playing congkak. The pupils’ cognitive development happens in terms of listening, using language and multiplying numbers. Teachers will become creative as well. Teachers are creative and they device games, The competition makes learning easier than listening teacher explaining the concepts on the white board.
Games typically have an end goal: winning. This prize at the end keeps students interested, and it motivates them to keep playing until they get that prize. Much of education is trial and error. Like the old saying goes: practice makes perfect. These inevitable small failures along the way can be discouraging for students. This can be especially true in a classroom setting, where the student might get embarrassed for getting a wrong answer, or receive a low mark on a test. But with games, losing is just part of the fun. It’s the challenge. It’s what makes it interesting.
Multiplying money, and adding money up to RM 100, the students count the money they measure the liquid based on the money collected round figure and they guess the liquid measurement to the customers. When teaching about money, we see it from childrens’ perspective and relate with their schemata and real life situation, the place they are familiar with. It will inculcate them to the love to maths. Maths is practical and it is not difficult because when they buy childrens’ things such as drinks and curry puffs they will bring the money enough for the items. It teaches them how to count money and appreciate what they have. Either way we teach them in real life and make them see how it is applicable. Money makes children life easier and they get things to shop with money. It is necessary to get daily items and make purchasing possible. Children are taught to complete task in a given time.
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Here we use the photostated Malaysian notes and coins. The fake bills and coins are laminated, and we put SAMPLE word on top of the bills and coins, so the children will know the bills are not legal tender. The reason we do not use Monopoly money, or any play money is because we want to instill the awareness that this happens in reality and the same procedure will be used if the children wants to buy or sell. We avoid using real money because this is just a class situation and there is no real trade that will happen.On top of it, when related to money and education, gambling, or a game of chance, for example the usage of dice or fortune wheels in any way are not practised in these lesson plans.
The first series of sen coins were introduced in 1967 in denominations of 1 sen, 5 sen, 10 sen, 20 sen, 50 sen, followed by the introduction of the 1 ringgit coin (which continued to use the $ symbol and is the largest coin in the series) in 1971. While varied by diameters, virtually all the coins were minted in nearconsistent obverse and reverse designs, the latter depicting the then recently completed Malaysian Houses of Parliament and the federal star and crescent moon derived from the canton of the Malaysian flag. All coins were minted from cupronickel, the only exception being the 1 sen coin, which was first composed from bronze between 1967 to 1972, followed by steel clad with copper from 1973 onwards. The 50 sen coin is the only coin in the series to undergo a redesign—a minor modification on its edge in 1971 to include "Bank Negara Malaysia" letterings.
The students do role play as sellers as well, and they have to use mental arithmetic or use paper and pencil to calculate. They also have to start a conversation with the sellers.
The second game is congkak. Congkak is a game of wit played by womenfolk in ancient times that required no more than holes in the earth and tamarind seeds. Today, it has been refined to a board game. It consists of a wooden board with two rows of five, seven, or nine holes and two large holes at both ends called "home". Congkak, played with seeds, pebbles or tamarind seeds, requires two players.People love to play this game because of its fun and easy gameplay. Marbles are used as tokens to be filled in every hole (also known as 'home base') of the congkak board. The main goal is to collect as many tokens as they can to be filled into the 'holes' (also known as the 'ibu') located at each end of the board. Players will be seated directly opposite each other facing the board. Players will start playing simultaneously by taking the tokens out of one of the holes and putting one into each consecutive holes starting from right to let until they reach the 'home base' of their opponent. They will continue to do so until they run out of tokens that are collected at their respective 'ibu'. The player who has collected the most tokens in their 'hole' wins the game.
The teams will learn how to calculate items while playing with marbles, and they given a formula to work with. It is a game of skill and they use maths concept to solve a problem. The congkak is a traditional game that uses the players’ ability to guess the number of marbles, seeds in order to collect as many marks as they can for their hole. In this case, they multiply the numbers to get more marks for their hole. Involuntarily, the team need to do maths calculations if they want to get more marks
First Lesson plan
Theme:Counting Money
Learning Objectives:
By the end of the lesson, students are able to
a) Use different combinations of notes to represent a given amount of money;
b) Use different combinations of notes and coins to represent a given amount of money;
c) Exchanging notes up to RM 100;
d) Converting ringgit to sen and vice versa;
Things needed
 Worksheet
 Pencil
 Eraser
 Book
 Bags
 Exercise books
 Substitute of RM 1,5,10 money and coins
 Desk
 A list of items to be sold
Procedure:
 It is assigned earlier that the class is divided into groups of four. There will be 5 groups. 3 groups become the customers and 2 groups become the sellers. The sellers set up stalls with things on their desks. They are given RM 100 of different kind of notes and coins to start trading. The customers and the traders are given money to be used.
Customers:
 The customers provide money with a specific value, and they will combine RM bills and coins to have the value asked.
 They show to their teacher the bills valued to RM 30, for example.
 They give the bills to seller at any booth. They will receive items worth RM 30, or with a balance if the items are not valued to RM 30.
 The customers will go to another stall and used a combination of notesto represent RM 40, for example.
Example:
Traders:
 The traders will receive the RM 30 money and they will prepare items worth RM 30. They have to calculate their items’s price that will amount to RM 30, and they give to the customer.
 If they can only manage to collect RM 27, they will use bills to give the balance to the customer.
 This happens five times for a booth. The teacher sees if the exact amount of money is given or if there is any change, the seller is to return the balance correctly. And fill in the table for their sales on that day.
After that, the traders and the customers will change their places, and they perform tasks.
What is the least amount of items needed to fulfil the customers’ money value?
What is the most amount of items needed to fulfil the customers’ money value?
Value (RM)  The least amount of items needed  The most amount of items needed 
35  Bag and socks (RM 30 + RM 5)  Sweets (each is RM 1) 
  
Ist lesson plan/ Attachment 1; Worksheet
No:  Value (RM)  The least amount of items needed  The most amount of items needed 
1    
2    
3    
4    
5    
6    
7    
Sample of a stall layout in a class situation.  

Ist lesson plan/ Attachment/ list of items to be sold.
 Items  Price (RM) 
1  Ben 10 bag  10 
2  Pencil  5.20 
3  Pen  4.90 
4  Pencil box  19.90 
5  Shirt  21.90 
6  Chair  7.77 
7  Shoes  14.95 
8  Sandals  20 
9  Girl bags  30 
10  Sport shoes  45 
11  Sweets  1 
12  Socks  5 
13  Uniform  10.90 
14  Shirt  5.90 
Ist lesson plan/ Attachment/ Printable version of notes and coins
10 sen, 1 sen and 50 sen coins. Print these pictures and laminate them.
 
Notes , these are not legal tender RM 5 notes
 
 

Second Lesson Plan
Theme/ Learning Area; Multiplication Numbers
Learning Objectives:
By the end of the lesson, students are able to:
 Perform mental arithmetic on multiplication,
 recall basic facts on multiplication up to 9 X 9.
 Multiply any two numbers with and without regrouping
 Add and multiply 2 digit numbers with one within a given time.
Materials:
1. A Set of congkak board.
2. Worksheet
3. Stationeries.
Procedure
 Students are gathered into groups of 4.
 They are briefed on how to play congkak.
 Then they follow the normal way to play congkak, see attachments on how to play.
 They need to multiply numbers in the middle of the game to get more marks and they jot down the marks in the worksheet.
 The subtraction is required at the last part, where the 2 teams count the number of marks they have gathered in their hole. The hole with more marks than the other wins.
Lesson plan 2/ Attachments How to set up the board
 Each hole must be filled with 9 marbles. There are 18 holes in a congkak board. The board is divided into 2 parts. One team sit the opposite of each other.
 The 9 holes are named as line A and the opposite is named as line B. Both lines have a big hole called as home base.
 Line A’s home base is on the right and line B is on the other end.
 Each hole has a value, the first hole on the right handside is and it increases one until it reaches the ninth hole, which carries number 9.
 The home base is left empty.
Lesson plan 2/ Attachments How to play
1. This game commences simultaneously by the two players puts a marble into each holes in his own ‘home base’. Then a seed is put into the ‘rumah’ of the opponents ‘home base’.
2. To start off the game, take all seeds on the right hand and distribute the marbles from one hole to another in an anti clockwise motion.
3. The distribution is called ‘seeding’.
4. When the last seed lands in a hole, and there are seeds inside it, take the seeds from the hole and distribute the seeds one by one.
5. Do this until you have no more seeds left.
Position of Start Time











If your last seed lands at Hole # 7 and 4 seeds in hole Line B.


Multiply 7 with the amount of seeds in the hole at Line B.
4 X 7= 28
28 is the mark for team A.
Then, take all 4 seeds from seeds in the hole in Line B and put them into Homebase A.
Jot down the marks in the worksheet and let team B distribute using the same way as Team A.
The first round ends when a player has no more seeds on his side. Play resumes in the second round with players redistributing seeds from their own 'home base' to their own 'holes'. Beginning from left to right, seven seeds are placed in each 'hole'. If a player does not have sufficient seeds to fill his own 'holes', the remaining cups are left empty and are considered 'burnt'. The leftover seeds are deposited into his own 'home base.' The opponent deposits excess seeds he has won into his own 'home base'.
The loser gets to start the second round. Play is continued as before but players will bypass 'burnt holes' for instance no seeds are to be dropped into these holes. If a seed is accidentally dropped into a 'burnt hole', it is confiscated and stored in the opponent's 'home base'.
Experience
In the first lesson, they learn how to use money the correct way, the monet represents the real Malaysian money, and they combine the money to buy things. It is a different trading, where they are asked to give money without knowing what to buy, but this is to encourage them to combine money and prevent them from giving a RM 50 note and hope to get the balance. When they become the shopkeeper, their task is to provide the items that matches the money they receive, the customers do not tell what they want.
In the second lesson plan, they multiply when the game ends. The person who has the last seed ends it , aand if he lands on line A, he needs to multiply his seeds. He gets marks, he feels happy and the sound of the seeds motivates them to carry on. It teaches them to be honest as well, because they must distribute the seeds, and not hide any seeds in the hand. The addition happens when the game ands, they do addition using the standard method, and they add the numbers in the worksheet with the amount of the seeds in their home base. They need to be careful in multiplying, the fun adds up when they see their points gets higher. They do role play when they becomes the children life their fathers and mothers in kampongs, they dress up like village boys and girls.
They multiply 2 digit number with one digit number, this is a good practice. We cannot expect to win only because of the collection in the homebases, we look at the points gathered in the worksheet. The game can be played three times for 2 teams.
Conclusion
In both lesson plans, pupils take turns to have their roles. These are not tough competition, where they put much effort to compete and win over one another. They learn Maths together and only a little competition happens. The first requires the pupils to find the equal amount of items in the fastest time possible and the second lesson needs them to do mental calculation when they multiplies the 2 digit numbers with another two or one digit number. Both trains the students to multiply points, subtract and add numbers to reach the target value of the money given. Both lessons are good for life.
Children whether they become customers or sellers, they have to combine the values in terms of money and items. The customers prepare money, a combination of notes and it teaches them to use different combinations. Even though they will not use real money, the nearest graphical representation of Malaysian Ringgit is used and it makes them to be familiar with the Malaysian currency.
Worksheet
 Calculations  Marks 
 Example: 7 X 4  28 
1   
2   
3   
4   
No of words: 2973
References:
 Chong Liep kiong et all.(2007). HBMT2203 Teaching Mathematics in Year Three. Kuala Lumpur. Open Universiti Malaysia.
 National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). (1995). Assessment standards for school mathematics. Reston, VA: Author. ( 3 Mac,2011 )
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4. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). (2000b). NCTM position statement: Highstakes testing. Retrieved September 14, 2005. ( 3 Mac,2011)
5. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). (2000c). Principles and standards for school mathematics. Retrieved September 14, 2005. ( 3 Mac,2011)
6. National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM). (2002). Answers to frequently asked questions about Principles and Standards for School Mathematics. Reston, VA: Author. Retrieved September 14, 2005.( 27 Feb, 2011)
7. No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 , Pub. L. No. 107110, 115 Stat. 1425 (2002). Retrieved September 14, 2005 . ( 1 Mac, 2011 )
8. North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (NCREL). (n.d.). Closing the achievement gaps: Work in the NCREL region: Strategies from the region. Retrieved September 14, 2005. ( 1 Mac, 2011 )
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