PARTS OF SPEECH
Parts of speech can be divided into eight different parts. They are:
- Nouns 5. Adverbs
- Pronouns 6. Prepositions
- Verbs 7. Conjunctions
- Adjectives 8. Interjections
Nouns are words that are used to refer to people, places, objects, abstract things and qualities.
Zulaikha, Tan, Punitha
Yemen, Melaka, California
interest, delight , feedback
There are several types of nouns. They are:
They are formed in words ending wih -ster, -er, -ette, -ess, -ey, -hood, -dom, -ant and others.
master, baker, launderette, sweetness, sisterhood, wisdom
Proper nouns are usually names of people, places, events and others. Proper nouns begin with a capital letter and they do not take any determiner in front of them.
Zulaikha, Halim (names of people)
Melati Ballroom, Italy (names of places)
Thaipusam, Mother’s Day (names of events)
Abstract nouns are words that used to refer to abstract things such as ideas, feelings and qualities.
beauty, freedom, fun (abstract ideas)
happiness, sadness, pride (feelings)
patience, loyalty, bravery (qualities)
Collective nouns refer to a collection of things or a group of people. Collective nouns can be used either with singular or plural verbs. The singular verb is used when the noun is taken as an individual or as a single unit. Similarly, collective nouns can also be used with the plural form.
team, family, crew, company, public, audience, committee, staff
The football team is celebrating their victory at Burn’s Diner.
The football team are celebrating their victory at Burn’s Diner.
The committee wants Ayuni to attend the conference in Kuala Lumpur.
The committee want Ayuni to attend the conference in Kuala Lumpur.
They are formed when an apostrophe and –s are added to the singular or the irregular plural noun.
the students’ book
There are also different types of nouns that derive from the word-formation process. These nouns are compound nouns and complex nouns.
They are formed when two nouns are combined.
rain (noun) + bow (noun) = rainbow
head (noun) + master (noun) = headmaster
They are formed when a noun and another word class are put together.
black (adjective) + bird (noun) = blackbird
ice (adjective) + cream (noun) = ice cream
Pronouns are used to replace a noun and the expression that is mentioned before.
Hazza went to the market. He bought some fruits.
There are several types of pronouns. They are:
I, you, he, she, it, we, they
The architect has successfully created a design that is extraordinary.
He/she has successfully created a design that is extraordinary.
me, you, him, her, it, us, them
My friends treated me to lunch today.
mine, yours, his, hers, its, theirs
Those socks are yours.
myself, yourself, himself, herself, ourselves, yourselves, themselves
We need to take care of ourselves.
this, that (singular)
these, those (plural)
I have to give this assignment to my teacher.
These are the books that I bought from the bookstore.
Who, whom, which, whose
Yassen, who scored highest in English, actually loves to sing.
Verbs provide information on actions done by a person or a thing.
The cat runs.
In other words, a verb is also known as the ‘action’ word.
There are several types of verbs. They are:
a) Transitive Verbs
Transitive Verbs need an object to complete the verb sense.
Lian cooks dinner. (dinner = object)
b) Intransitive Verbs
Intransitive Verbs do not need an object to complete the verb sense.
George smokes. (No object)
c) Auxiliary Verbs
Auxiliary verbs assist another verb in order to form one part of it. They are also said to be the ‘helping’ verbs. They include can, could, may, might, must, ought, shall, should, will, would, have to, have got to, must, need to, should have and ought to have.
I have to go back early.
d) Finite and Infinitive Verbs
A finite verb functions according to the number of subjects/pronouns.
For the first person and second person,
For the third person,
He / She / It sleeps
On the other hand, the infinitive does not function according to number of subjects/persons. It does not change form regardless of the subject found in a sentence as it maintains the root verb (to + root verb).