__Introduction__

Most students think that mathematics is a difficult, complicated and confusing subject because it involves formulae and calculations. Others see mathematics as a boring subject which sometimes is unrelated to their real-life situations. On the other hand, conventional learning instruments for learning mathematics such as text book, revision book, and courseware are not very effective in ensuring a mastery of the subject. Among the problems associated with the conventional learning instruments are: lack of motivation, not very interesting / boring, little encouragement for self-learning , less meaningful and no continuity.

People learn best when they have a strong and immediate motivation to acquire new knowledge, and when they are having fun. Role playing games are able to create a fun, motivating, and interactive virtual learning environment. Furthermore, for today’s kids, raised on computers and video games, presenting concepts in a form they are predisposed to love is a great formula for success

Games are able to provide a fun and motivating environment for teaching and learning of certain subjects. Role- playing games allow students to assume the role of a character in the game world and to determine the actions of their characters based on the characterization. This would provide an exciting and motivating strategy for students to practice skills that they have already learned. This paper describes the development of a role-playing game in learning mathematics. Due to its interactive and stimulating nature, the game is suitable for school children in learning this subject.

The meaning of subtraction is the operation of deducting one number from another. When we take away objects from a group, the mathematical term is subtraction. In this assignment, we focus on subtracting 100 and less. A few of the subtraction terms are take away, left over, counting back and difference. This assignment caters with three methods of subtraction that are Subtraction as Counting back, Subtraction as Take Away and Subtraction Using Models.

Subtraction is divided into three ways. In a simple word it is taking away, and it means taking away a small number form a large number of things. Some of the terms that shows subtraction is taking away, left over, counting back and difference. Subtracting also included the words such as how many more, what the amount to be added and how many remains.

In this assignment, I have a step by step approach , and makes it easy for the students to understand. In this assignment I have devised 2 new lesson plans that are suitable for standard 3 Malaysian pupils. I present role plays in classroom along with using concrete methods such as inquiry-discovery, demonstration, simulation and others. It is essential for students to get involved into the learning of Maths, so they will learn it meaningfully and effectively. In the lesson plan, there will be materials needed to be prepared and the methodology. The 2 lesson plans suit the Malaysian standard three students, especially from Sekolah Kebangsaan Ayer Baruk. The mediocre, remedial and enrichment class students are in different classes so it is easier for teachers to put together the lessons. The subtraction lessons are pretty easy for weak learners and I hope this help them in achieving their objectives to learn subtraction.

The first thing in the first lesson plan that comes into my mind is to change from dogs going to the vet to rabbits going to the vet. It would be better for the students, since they are more familiar with cats. I give them something to do, where they have to act it out and come out with dialogue such as ‘How is this rabbit?”. Then I think about there should be a ward for rabbits that need treatment.

In this lesson plan, I teach them on how to subtract in a column. Subtraction in a column requires us to put the number we want to subtract at the top, and the number we are going to subtract at the bottom. The numbers must be properly lined up and exactly below each other in the column.

Role play is interesting as it relates to the real life, and in this case it is safe. I expose them to the clinic situation. The students are asked to cross out the rabbits to find the answers.

__Objectives__

The objective of this paper is to ensure each class session’s objectives are fulfilled, as in every lesson, there must be an objective. By learning from other resources from websites in the Internet, we know there are other approaches used. How to make learning Maths fun and to be in context with the real life so they would know how to practise Maths when they are at shops. Learning Maths through word problems makes them practise English too. The main objective is to make their achievements in Maths to be measurable from exams in class.

__DAILY LESSON PLAN 1__**Theme/Learning Area**: Subtraction Numbers Below 100 Using Models

**Learning**

**Objectives:**By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:-

- Subtract the rabbits in and out of the Animal Clinic.
- Do calculations for the medical fees for the rabbits.
- Understand calculation as take away or difference between two groups of objects.

Use and apply knowledge of subtraction in daily lives.

__Materials:__

Each group will receive:

- 3 picture boxes of an animal clinic(Box A) , a house (Box B) and a ward (Box C)
- 50 pictures of rabbits

**Activities:(Students are divided into groups of four)**

1. Today, we the pet owners, will bring the rabbits to the veterinarian's office. When animals get sick they go to the vet and the vet will try to make them healthy enough to go home.

2. The team will be given a worksheet, dealing with subtraction. They are given 3 boxes, these are the clinic (Box A) , a house (Box B) and a ward (Box C)They start off by answering worksheet 1.

3. They fill in box A first with 25 rabbits.

4. For the first question, they take 7 rabbits from box A and put it into box B. The balance, they put in box C.

5. When they have done the first exercise, they have to pay for the clinic’s fees .They calculate RM 25 to the number of rabbits in Box B, and RM 27 to the amount of rabbits in Box C. They write the answers in the worksheet.

6. Then, they attempt the second question. , they put all 10 rabbits into box A again, and repeat the process.

7. At the end of the session, the worksheet is filled with answers and then it is checked

__Sample: (Worksheet 1):__

25 -7 | 25 -10 | 27 -16 | 19 -8 | 16 -10 | 13 -9 | 17 -5 | | |

| | | | | | | | |

__Worksheet 1__

Question | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | 10 |

Box A | | | | | | | | | | |

Box B | | | | | | | | | | |

Box C | | | | | | | | | | |

__Worksheet 2__

Box A(Home) | Box B(The Clinic) X RM 25 | Box C(The Ward) X RM 27 |

Total amount | | |

Fill in the correct amount of rabbits in the respective boxes.

Box A(Outside) Place 10 rabbit pictures here | Box B(The Clinic) X 25 | Box C(The Ward) X 27 |

Total amount | | |

**Pedagogy**: Thinking Skills

**Techniques**: Practical, Problem Solving, Group Work, Role Play

**Values**: Systematic

**Reflection**

__Sample of worksheet__:

Question no 1:

1) Subtract 8 from 10 using counters

2) Set out 10 as units

O O O O O O O O O O |

Subtract 4 units

O O O O O O O O O O |

Then count the units that are left. Write the equation:

10-8=____

Write the answer:

__Lesson plan 1/Attachment/ Cut out these rabbits and give 45 for each group__

(These pictures can be made smaller)

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**DAILY LESSON PLAN 2**

**Theme/Learning Area**: Addition between 2 digit numbers

**Learning**

**Objectives:**By the end of the lesson, students will be able to:-

- Add 2 digit numbers with 2 digit numbers correctly.

Pre-Activity Preparation is making the worksheets and copies of 10 black boys lyrics and photocopy 50 faces of boys, cut them out like the bunnies in Lesson 1.

Teacher familiarizes with the children play song titled “Ola Oli”.

**Equipment:**

Individual pictures of boys.

Lyrics on manila cards or written on white board

**Activities:**

**Induction set:**

Sing the 50 boys song to the children.

Procedure:

- Students will be at the carpet for 50 black boys song and they count on the white board.
- They will move to their tables for the worksheet.
- Have students sit on the carpet while everybody sings the 50 black boys song
- This is addition method, and the students follow the song.
- When it is time to add, they move the correct amount of black boy faces from the lot.
- After 2 lines, they are asked by the teacher, :
- How many boys are there ?
- They answer and they continue singing until there is already 50.

**Pedagogy**: Thinking Skills

**Techniques**: :Group work, Practical, Cooperative learning

**Values**: Diligence and Patience, Public Sportiness

__Experience__

In the first lesson plan, they do role play when they becomes the customers in an animal clinic. The students learn how to take care of rabbits and then they know how to count the expenses, by multiplying price with the number or rabbits. They experience how to put the correct amount of rabbits into box B and C, otherwise they have to pay more. Here, the students do the maths multiplication and subtraction using the standard method taught. The attachments there shows the students how to solve the Maths problems like what is requird in the examination papers. When they do the role play, they have fun and also they do the maths, and that is more important because it takes the lesson and the fun to achieve the lesson outcomes. The children needs to see the relationship between having fun and learning, because they will apply the knowledge in the exam papers.

In the second lesson plan, they sing a song and in maths it is challenging because they need to pronounce numbers in line with the syllables of the original song, such as forth, twenty five. When they add the numbers together, they learn in a positive way. Usually the ten black boys is about subtraction, and then I change it so it adds people in the boys group. The students can remember the song easily, because it is a children song. The excitement builds up when they reach the phrase where they tell their friends and teacher the answer. The singing can be joined by teacher in the questioning line.

__Conclusion__

The first lesson plan is educational and let students concentrate on the lesson. The second lesson plan lets them have fun by singing a familiar song and at the same time practice addition. The last one lets them to do role play by being doctors and nurses.

Pupils understand meanings of subtraction and addition operations in order to learn better. This assignment encourages teachers to prepare better lesson plans for all student levels.

In the second lesson plan the first thing that comes into my mind is replacing this lyrics of the song, because it is in the Malaysian context. After finding the song, I find ola oli song is the most suitable song for this lesson plan. The students could easily understand the song, and they can sing the song straightaway afterwards because the song’s vocab is so easy. The earlier description on how to conduct this lesson plan is so simple, that I find it difficult to be understood then I changed it to suit the Malaysian schoolchildren. . Students are asked to do addition, which is a simple process of adding numbers from zero to 50.

After that, I change the lesson to only be about addition and it will make the students to be focused. Plus, they are more focused to add up the amount of the black boys, instead of subtracting and adding to the number afterwards, and not having an end for this song.

The students will be asked to count forward and it is going to test their mastery in remembering all the numbers. It also trains them on pronunciation. It will be quite repetitious but I think the students is going to love thins because it is easy to remember. The exercise shows that they learn to reason out why the boys are gone one by one. I admit the original song is Adding Annie song, and I think an edited version of the 10 black boys will be better for them to read it.

It takes time to adapt all two lesson plans to the students, but has to be done. There must be a link with the real life out there, and the students must feel that Maths is a tool to make their lives easier. Apart from that, in a classroom situation, they are expected to score with flying colours in their examinations.

The lesson plan teaches on subtraction and addition. The teacher’s job becomes easier because both plans use children background knowledge and experience to create a safe environment. The first and the second lesson uses counting back method and it is simplified in terms of graphics. In the second lesson plan, the first 6 questions need to add 2 digit numbers with a two digit number, and the last four , between one digit numbers only. They sing along, and that teaches them on pronunciation as well, that is to say numbers correctly. For both lesson plans, they grasp the skill of subtraction and addition between two numbers and multiplication methods for Malaysian money.

__Lesson 2/Attachment/ The Lyrics:__

To be sung according to this children song:

__The original lyrics__:

Ola/ o/li ku/be/ri/ na/ma /

sau/da/ra/ sau/da/ri/

Ci/ki/ bom /ci/ki/ bom/

Ma/lam /ma/lam /ming/gu/

Si/ang/ si/ang /ha/ri/

/Ma/in/ ma/in

Pu/tih/ pu/tih /me/la/ti/ a/li/ ba/ba/

Me/rah /me/rah /je/li/ta/ mi/au /mi/au

Si/a/pa /ja/di /pa/tung/ ?

__The mathematics lyrics__

One boy is here, one boy is here,

We add another nine

O my friends and teacher

It is ten, it is ten,

Then we add fifteen

It becomes twenty five

Yes sir,yes sir.

twenty five plus fifteen what’s the answer ?

It becomes forty my dear teacher

forty plus ten what’s the answer ?

__Lesson plan 2/ Attachment/ Break down into syllables and the lyrics__

O | la | o | li | ku | be | ri | na | ma |

one | boy | Is | here | one | boy | is | here | |

ku | be | ri | na | ma | | | | | |

add | a | no | ther | 9 | | | | | |

sau | da | ra | sau | da | ri |

o | my | friends | and | tea | cher |

ci | ki | bom | ci | ki | bom | | | | |

it | is | ten | it | is | ten | | | | |

ma | lam | ma | lam | ming | gu |

then | we | add | fif | teen | |

si | ang | si | ang | ha | ri |

it | be | comes | twen | ty | five |

ma | in | ma | in |

yes | sir | yes | sir |

pu | tih | pu | tih | me | la | ti | a | li | ba | ba |

twen | ty | five | plus | fif | teen | what | is | the | an | swer ? |

me | rah | me | rah | je | li | ta | mi | au | mi | au |

it | be | comes | for | ty | my | dear | tea | cher | and | friends |

si | a | pa | nak | men | jadi | pa | Tung ? |

for | ty | plus | ten | What’s | the | an | swer ? |

No of words: 2547

__References:__- Chong Liep kiong et all.(2007). HBMT2203 Teaching Mathematics in Year Three. Kuala Lumpur. Open Universiti Malaysia.
- www.cumbavac.org/
**Math**.htm

- tutoring.sylvanlearning.com/newsletter/0704/
**math**.cfm

- www.sitesfor
**teachers**.com/

- www.pbs.org/
**teachers**/ -

- www.mrbarton
**maths**.com/links.htm

- www.nctm.org/

- www.shambles.net/pages/learning/
**Maths**P/**maths**web/

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