REALIAS AND EVERYDAY THINGS COMBINED
WITH KINESTHETICS SKILL THEORY INCREASE STUDENTS’ MATHEMATICAL COMPETENCY IN
MULTIPLICATION AMONG STANDARD FOUR STUDENTS
ABSTRACT
Mathematics
is always evolving. It always undergoes changes through the years. It undergoes
paradigm shift when new elements are adapted into the teachings. Teachers are
always finding new ways to teach maths, whether senior or young teachers who
are competent in ICT. Senior teachers who have fossilised look very confident
with their ways, but for teachers who have just graduated from teacher
college, they are out there finding new ways, just to teach Maths the
effective and fun way. Whether a teacher is teaching 4A or 4G (the last
class)in streaming schools, they must adapt their lesson plans for both
competency levels to make the students able to achieve the objectives before
the bell rings. The current Maths methodology has evolved, the only thing
that is consistent is evolution. The methodology presented in this assignment
is interesting and designed to achieve its objectives. In the first part, it
is presented the errors the students make when they perform multiplication process,
the second part how we can improve our ways to suit their needs, then this
paper.

1.0 Preliminary
Reflection on Teaching and Learning Process.
I
am a teacher in Sekolah Kebangsaan Air Baruk. I teach Mathematics in 4 Nilam there. The problem with my sample students are
they do not understand the question’s requirements, they do not understand the
Maths terms used in the questions, I always think, why do they not able to remember
the timestable and lastly, they cannot perform the regrouping process when
they multiply. So, I have done a non structural survey in my class, These
errors are evident from the sample answers I have done and given to them, and
also from the exercises I have done with them in the classroom. My first
analysis that I have arrived to is they are quite lazy to understand the
question that are presented as case studies, they do not want to put forth
their initiative to master multiplication. Here are examples of the errors I
have found in their answers. This problem happens because they do not revise
their lessons during the weekends. This may also come from me, as perhaps I
need to adapt my teaching styles according to their competency level.
2.0 RESEARCH FOCUS
3.0
Even though I detect many errors that my students have done, I just focus on 4
main elements, that are to make them understand the questions and the terms
used, make them remember the timestable and they be able to perform regrouping
for questions that require regrouping. To solve their problems an innovation
where I combine language with Mathematics is done. From my observation, it is
found that the teacher can grasp the student’s attention by using realia, real
things that they find in their lives. I also run away from the normal writing
using pencil on papers, I use cards, so they need not write to perform the
correct method and arrive at the correct answers. The students become more
interested and the teacher can identify student’s area of interests and
strengths.
3.0 OBJECTIVE ACTION RESEARCH
3.1 General Objective
I
want to increase the students’ skills in multiplication among the students of 4
Nilam through relia and kinaesthetic
skills theory.
3.2 Specific Objective
By
the end of the research, 100 % students will be able to perform multiplication
effectively.
Change
the students’ perception that Mathematics is a difficult subject, and increase
their confidence in themselves and the sense of responsibility towards
themselves.
Create
a good interaction between the students and students and teachers.
4. TARGET GROUP
My
target group consists from students in 4 Nilam the children that I teach. There
are 10 boys and 10 girls in that group.
5.0 MISTAKES
5.1 Do not understand
the question’s requirements.
They
answer not according to the requirements, because the question requires them to
multiply but the pupils answer the question using addition and dividing
numbers.
5.2 Misunderstanding on terms.
The
participating students performed best for word problems in Bahasa Melayu.
However, most of the Standard 4 students from urban schools faced fewer
problems in learning mathematics. This could be due their higher proficiency in
English language as their parents are more conscious about the education of
their children and there is better opportunity to learn English either in
schools or outside of schools as compared to the low English proficiency of
students from rural schools.
Students
perceived that they were not ready to learn mathematics through English.
However, they were very positive towards learning of mathematics. The
participating teachers perceived that limited English proficiency is one of the
reasons why students cannot follow the mathematics lessons. As a result,
teachers need to explain the lessons in Bahasa Melayu because the message can
then be delivered successfully. A moderate number of teachers perceived that
they were ready to teach mathematics through English. Majority of the teachers
agreed that students’ achievement in mathematics would improve if they do a lot
of revision after school. As a whole, teachers showed good attitude towards
mathematics and English.
Students
do not understand the English terms and perhaps they do not read the Malay
translation. For example, in question number 2 for all question sets. They
cannot relate the word weekdays, they think there are 7 days in a weekday, from
Sunday to Saturday., but they do not remember it’s called only week. The error
is visible in all question sets 1 until 4.
The
terms are presented on cue cards, and they are extracted from case study
questions. For example,
Ali
has 235 stamps and he gives them equally to his three siblings. How many does
one has?
The
phrase gives them equally:
gives
them equally

The students are given 4 cards which contain 4
different symbols, they are symbols for divide, multiply, addition and
subtraction. They show to the class what is the symbols that is meant by the
phrase gives them equally.
Second
example;
Mr
Salleh divides equally RM 5 to his 5 sons. How much will one son gets?
5.3 Do not remember
timestable
The
students know the question’s requirements but they face problems to calculate
because they do not remember the timestable. The timestable for 2,3 and 4
that they have learn t in standard One.
It makes them to write the mistake
5.4 Error in regrouping
The
student’s error is visible in the value of tens, they do not add multiplication
answer with the value on top of the tens number. They just write the answer for
the multiplication and ignore the number supposed to be added to the tens
number.
There
are many different ways to perform multiplication. Usually, we perform the task
of multiplication by the standard form, which is writing the numbers to be
multiplied in vertical order.

1

1



2

3

4

x



3


7

0

2

Algorithm
here is written in a standard written method, which is commonly used in the
class. Multiplication in regrouping in ones will place ones inside and tens in put
up. This type will not use bigger space and less numbers to provide the
answers. Students do not add the numbers on top of the tens and hundreds, which
will be a mistake. Perhaps it is because the number 1 is smaller than the
normal size , that makes them not see the importance.
The
sample of the mistake is visible at second question set, third question and in
the first question set, question no 4.
6.0 Improvements
6.1
Improvements for not understanding the question’s requirements
Ask
students to read the questions many times, and identify the English words used
in the question, so the students will understand the requirements. Ask students
to underline the key words so they know the requirements.
6.2
Improvements for misunderstanding on terms
Students
understand English words. Teacher discuss with students topics related to the
question, and stress out to the students about week, month and year. Guide the
student to take out the terms or underline them the important terms in the
question
6.3
Improvements for inability to memorise timestable
The
basic facts of multiplication involve the products of any two 1digit whole
numbers. We shall concentrate ourselves on teaching half on the basic facts to
our Year 2 students, that is, till 9 x 5 = 45. As we can organize in a similar
manner. In fact organizing the basic
facts into a table could help our students to remember and master the basic
facts systematically and easily. Before helping students to construct a table
of basic facts of the basic facts of multiplication, we should make sure that
they understand them well.
Here
are some of the important basic multiplication facts: Multiplying by 0 : Any
number multiplied by 0 equals 0. Multiplying by 1 : Any number multiplied by 1 equal number.
Multiplying by 2 and 3 are as follows:
TWO


0
x 2 = 0

1
x 2 = 2

2
x 2 = 4

3
x 2 = 6

4
x 2 = 8

5
x 2 =10

6
x 2 =12

7
x 2 =14

8
x 2 =16

9
x 2 =18

THREE 

0
x 3 = 0

1
x 3 = 3

2
x 3 = 6

3
x 3 = 9

4
x 3 = 12

5
x 3 =15

6
x 3 =18

7
x 3 =21

8
x 3 = 24

9 x
3 = 27

Multiplying by 4 and 5.
FOUR


0
x 4 = 0

1
x 4 = 4

2
x 4 = 8

3
x 4 =12

4
x 4 =16

5
x 4 =20

6
x 4 =24

7
x 4 =28

8
x 4 =32

9
x 4 =36

FIVE 

0
x 5 = 0

1
x 5 = 5

2
x 5 = 10

3
x 5 = 15

4
x 5 = 20






There
are 4 important things that a teacher must practice at school, to help the
students to remember the basic factor in multiplication more easily and
accurately. Besides the above the teacher can use other technique more
effectively. Teacher must ask random question and they practice by filling
empty zero box. The teacher uses 3 minutes for each teaching session
I
systematize a 5 minute timestable time, the students will recite the
timestable for five minutes before a maths class is on the go. If I feel it
takes time, I will stand by the class that I teach Maths during the assembly,
and when they disperse, they say out the multiplication facts when they are
walking to their class. This way will make my students not to waste time
talking.
6.4
Improvements for mistake of not regrouping the numbers
Teacher
gives a series of exercise related to regrouping so students become familiar.
Stress to the students that every time there is the value multiplication calculation must be added with
first number of the two digit number, based on the place value. Teacher also gives
extra work so students become familiar
7.0 Activities
Example
of the mistakes are in question set 1 on question number 1,2 and 3.
7.1.1 Activity named Mix and
Match
 Teacher arranges mix and match game.
 The students are briefed on how to play the game.
 Teacher gives cards containing mathematical terms. Teacher flashes a card containing a phrase, and the students will select and show a maths term that carries the same meaning.
 Teacher gives marks for the teams with the most answers correct.
(The
terms are multiply, divide, addition, subtraction, multiplicand, equals
division and others. The phrases are such as give away, how much left, how much
taken, How many days are there in a week day ? , How many days are there in a
weekend, and How many days are there in a week ?. Teacher also has questions
such as :What is the meaning of Balance ? What is the maths process involved if
a question has this phrase ? Added more, Increase the volume and decrease the
volume)
7.1.2 Question in Cloze passage
1. Teacher
gets the students into groups of 5.
2. They
are given a cloze passage.(refer below)
3. When
they arrive at the underlined phrases, they must find the word that carries the
equivalent definition to the phrase.
4. They
show the word or task that carries the similar meaning to the phrases
underlined.
This
is the passage:
Salleh has given away 4 out of 5
marbles he has to Kalam. How many does he has now ? Kamal has added
2 marbles to his marbles. How many does he has now ? Kamal lost 3
marbles. How many does he has now ? 6 students went and see Kamal and
each give him two marbles. How many does he has now ? Kamal give
away equally all his marbles to three friends. How many marbles does Kamal has
now ? How many marbles do each of his friend has ?
7.2.1 Misunderstanding on terms
Students are given the time to utter the multiplication
facts
7.2.2 The Animal Farm
Activity
 The teacher helps them by showing to them animals that represent a value
 The students are shown 3 kinds of pictures.(refer below)
 Teacher asks a question such as : what is 4 X 5 ? and gives them 5 seconds to answer. The students answers and makes the sound and act like a cat if they answer in more than 5 seconds or they did not answer at all. If they did not know the answer, teacher shows 2 replicas of a cat. The students will guess the number must be 20, because 2 cats equals to ten times two equals to twenty.
Picture
of a cat, a hen and a bird. Each carries a different value from one another.
The Cat has 10 in value, the hen has 5 in value and the bird carries 1 in
value.
7.3 Inability to memorise
timestable
Activity
 Students are divided into groups of 5.
 They are given a set of questions to answer. They are given the cards containing numerical values.(refer below)
 When they are given a question, they collect the cards; according to the amount it is multiplied. Then, they do addition for all the values of the cards. What is 4 X 5 ?
(refer
below)
 They take 5 cards and count the total values and they answer twenty.
Cut
these cards out
4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

4

+ + + +
=4 =8 =12 =16 =20
7.4 Students do not
regroup the numbers
Activity
 Students are separated into groups of 5. They are given 5 questions. They are taught on the algorithm of multiplication (see below).
 They attempt the first question what is two hundred thirty four times three ? They arrange the cards on the rubber mat so it represents a written work of the algorithm.
 The students present how do they settle the maths problem on the white board.
 Teacher checks the answers and rearranges the numbers if there are mistakes.
(refer attachment 1)
This
method prevents the students from forgetting to add the number on top of the
tens and hundreds numbers. It uses a different solution on the whole. Instead of
writing the numbers small on top, this time it uses the box system . The
students do not add any numbers on top, because there is no small numbers on
top of the tens and hundreds. They must understand to write the value of the
digit correctly. The digit value will be multiplied and the answers will be
written inside the box provided.
8.0 Conclusion
After
doing this action research, I see improvements in the results, where the students’
interest in learning Maths, especially multiplication improves and their mars
also gets better. I propose the four methods to other teachers and it is hoped
that this action research will benefit other classes as well.
Bibliography
 Dr Mahmood Othman. (2011).HMBT3103 Teaching Mathematics in Year Four. Kuala Lumpur . Open University Malaysia
 Wan Yusof Wan Ngah et al. (2005). Mathematics Teachers Guidebook Year 4. Kuala Lumpur. Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka
 http://www.curiousmath.com/index.php?name=News&file=article&sid=10
 http://edhelper.com/multiplication.htm
 http://www.mathleague.com/help/wholenumbers/wholenumbers.htm
 http://www.coolmath4kids.com/timestables/numbermonstertimestablesmultiplication.htm
 http://www.mad4maths.com/math_help_multiplication/
 http://www.mathcats.com/grownupcats/ideabankmultiplication.html
Attachment
1
x

200

30

4


3

600

90

12



234
x 3 = 600 + 90 + 12
=
702











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