Hello and Good Day Everybody !
I am a new teacher in the school named Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Datuk Bendahara. This school is situated in Jasin, Melaka.
I am accepted to be one of the Guru Sandaran Terlatih (GST) here. There are 10 of us, my batch joined the schools in 27th June 2011.
In this blog, I share with you my experience and great things that are happening to me in the school.
There are also notes and things for good English class usages, so feel free to browse them whenever there are gaps between classes.
My mentor here is Hajjah Zaorah and she has been guiding me to be a better English teacher.
Thank you !
In this blog, I have uploaded
Literature lesson plans for form 4 and 5
working papers, reports after programmes, yearly uniform body reports, weekly reports, sponsorship letters, sample of memos and thank you notes, short stories and others.

Happy teaching, teachers !
Here is a good link to English Materials:

Pengikutku, Sila jadi pengikut untuk blogs saya !

Wednesday, June 6, 2012


Mathematics is always evolving. It always undergoes changes through the years. It undergoes paradigm shift when new elements are adapted into the teachings. Teachers are always finding new ways to teach maths, whether senior or young teachers who are competent in ICT. Senior teachers who have fossilised look very confident with their ways, but for teachers who have just graduated from teacher college, they are out there finding new ways, just to teach Maths the effective and fun way. Whether a teacher is teaching 4A or 4G (the last class)in streaming schools, they must adapt their lesson plans for both competency levels to make the students able to achieve the objectives before the bell rings. The current Maths methodology has evolved, the only thing that is consistent is evolution. The methodology presented in this assignment is interesting and designed to achieve its objectives. In the first part, it is presented the errors the students make when they perform multiplication process, the second part how we can improve our ways to suit their needs, then this paper.

1.0 Preliminary Reflection on Teaching and Learning Process.
I am a teacher in Sekolah Kebangsaan Air Baruk. I teach Mathematics in 4 Nilam  there. The problem with my sample students are they do not understand the question’s requirements, they do not understand the Maths terms used in the questions, I always think, why do they not able to remember the times-table and lastly, they cannot perform the regrouping process when they multiply. So, I have done a non structural survey in my class, These errors are evident from the sample answers I have done and given to them, and also from the exercises I have done with them in the classroom. My first analysis that I have arrived to is they are quite lazy to understand the question that are presented as case studies, they do not want to put forth their initiative to master multiplication. Here are examples of the errors I have found in their answers. This problem happens because they do not revise their lessons during the weekends. This may also come from me, as perhaps I need to adapt my teaching styles according to their competency level.
3.0 Even though I detect many errors that my students have done, I just focus on 4 main elements, that are to make them understand the questions and the terms used, make them remember the times-table and they be able to perform regrouping for questions that require regrouping. To solve their problems an innovation where I combine language with Mathematics is done. From my observation, it is found that the teacher can grasp the student’s attention by using realia, real things that they find in their lives. I also run away from the normal writing using pencil on papers, I use cards, so they need not write to perform the correct method and arrive at the correct answers. The students become more interested and the teacher can identify student’s area of interests and strengths.
3.1 General Objective
I want to increase the students’ skills in multiplication among the students of 4 Nilam  through relia and kinaesthetic skills theory.
3.2 Specific Objective
By the end of the research, 100 % students will be able to perform multiplication effectively.
Change the students’ perception that Mathematics is a difficult subject, and increase their confidence in themselves and the sense of responsibility towards themselves.
Create a good interaction between the students and students and teachers.

My target group consists from students in 4 Nilam the children that I teach. There are 10 boys and 10 girls in that group.

5.1 Do not understand the question’s requirements.
They answer not according to the requirements, because the question requires them to multiply but the pupils answer the question using addition and dividing numbers.
5.2  Misunderstanding on terms.
The participating students performed best for word problems in Bahasa Melayu. However, most of the Standard 4 students from urban schools faced fewer problems in learning mathematics. This could be due their higher proficiency in English language as their parents are more conscious about the education of their children and there is better opportunity to learn English either in schools or outside of schools as compared to the low English proficiency of students from rural schools.
Students perceived that they were not ready to learn mathematics through English. However, they were very positive towards learning of mathematics. The participating teachers perceived that limited English proficiency is one of the reasons why students cannot follow the mathematics lessons. As a result, teachers need to explain the lessons in Bahasa Melayu because the message can then be delivered successfully. A moderate number of teachers perceived that they were ready to teach mathematics through English. Majority of the teachers agreed that students’ achievement in mathematics would improve if they do a lot of revision after school. As a whole, teachers showed good attitude towards mathematics and English.
Students do not understand the English terms and perhaps they do not read the Malay translation. For example, in question number 2 for all question sets. They cannot relate the word weekdays, they think there are 7 days in a weekday, from Sunday to Saturday., but they do not remember it’s called only week. The error is visible in all question sets 1 until 4.
The terms are presented on cue cards, and they are extracted from case study questions. For example,
Ali has 235 stamps and he gives them equally to his three siblings. How many does one has?
The phrase gives them equally:
gives them equally

 The students are given 4 cards which contain 4 different symbols, they are symbols for divide, multiply, addition and subtraction. They show to the class what is the symbols that is meant by the phrase gives them equally.
Second example;
Mr Salleh divides equally RM 5 to his 5 sons. How much will one son gets?
5.3 Do not remember times-table
The students know the question’s requirements but they face problems to calculate because they do not remember the times-table. The times-table for 2,3 and 4 that they have learn t in standard One.  It makes them to write the mistake
5.4 Error in regrouping
The student’s error is visible in the value of tens, they do not add multiplication answer with the value on top of the tens number. They just write the answer for the multiplication and ignore the number supposed to be added to the tens number.
There are many different ways to perform multiplication. Usually, we perform the task of multiplication by the standard form, which is writing the numbers to be multiplied in vertical order.





Algorithm here is written in a standard written method, which is commonly used in the class. Multiplication in regrouping in ones will place ones inside and tens in put up. This type will not use bigger space and less numbers to provide the answers. Students do not add the numbers on top of the tens and hundreds, which will be a mistake. Perhaps it is because the number 1 is smaller than the normal size , that makes them not see the importance.
The sample of the mistake is visible at second question set, third question and in the first question set, question no 4.
6.0  Improvements
6.1 Improvements for not understanding the question’s requirements
Ask students to read the questions many times, and identify the English words used in the question, so the students will understand the requirements. Ask students to underline the key words so they know the requirements.

6.2 Improvements for misunderstanding on terms
Students understand English words. Teacher discuss with students topics related to the question, and stress out to the students about week, month and year. Guide the student to take out the terms or underline them the important terms in the question

6.3 Improvements for inability to memorise times-table
The basic facts of multiplication involve the products of any two 1-digit whole numbers. We shall concentrate ourselves on teaching half on the basic facts to our Year 2 students, that is, till 9 x 5 = 45. As we can organize in a similar manner.  In fact organizing the basic facts into a table could help our students to remember and master the basic facts systematically and easily. Before helping students to construct a table of basic facts of the basic facts of multiplication, we should make sure that they understand them well.
Here are some of the important basic multiplication facts: Multiplying by 0 : Any number multiplied by 0 equals 0. Multiplying by 1   : Any number multiplied by 1 equal number. Multiplying by 2 and 3 are as follows:      

0 x 2 =  0
1 x 2 =  2
2 x 2 =  4
3 x 2 =  6
4 x 2 =  8
5 x 2 =10
6 x 2 =12
7 x 2 =14
8 x 2 =16
9 x 2 =18


0 x 3 =  0
1 x 3 = 3
2 x 3 = 6
3 x 3 =  9
4 x 3 = 12
5 x 3 =15
6 x 3 =18
7 x 3 =21
8 x 3 = 24
9       x 3 = 27

Multiplying by 4 and 5.

0 x 4 =  0
1 x 4 =  4
2 x 4 =  8
3 x 4 =12
4 x 4 =16
5 x 4 =20
6 x 4 =24
7 x 4 =28
8 x 4 =32
9 x 4 =36


0 x 5 =  0
1 x 5 = 5
2 x 5 = 10
3 x 5 = 15
4 x 5 = 20

There are 4 important things that a teacher must practice at school, to help the students to remember the basic factor in multiplication more easily and accurately. Besides the above the teacher can use other technique more effectively. Teacher must ask random question and they practice by filling empty zero box. The teacher uses 3 minutes for each teaching session
I systematize a 5 minute times-table time, the students will recite the times-table for five minutes before a maths class is on the go. If I feel it takes time, I will stand by the class that I teach Maths during the assembly, and when they disperse, they say out the multiplication facts when they are walking to their class. This way will make my students not to waste time talking.

6.4 Improvements for mistake of not regrouping the numbers
Teacher gives a series of exercise related to regrouping so students become familiar. Stress to the students that every time there is the value  multiplication calculation must be added with first number of the two digit number, based on the place value. Teacher also gives extra work so students become familiar

7.0 Activities
Example of the mistakes are in question set 1 on question number 1,2 and 3.
7.1.1 Activity named Mix and Match
  1. Teacher arranges mix and match game.
  2. The students are briefed on how to play the game.
  3. Teacher gives cards containing mathematical terms. Teacher flashes a card containing a phrase, and the students will select and show a maths term that carries the same meaning.
  4. Teacher gives marks for the teams with the most answers correct.

(The terms are multiply, divide, addition, subtraction, multiplicand, equals division and others. The phrases are such as give away, how much left, how much taken, How many days are there in a week day ? , How many days are there in a weekend, and How many days are there in a week ?. Teacher also has questions such as :What is the meaning of Balance ? What is the maths process involved if a question has this phrase ? Added more, Increase the volume and decrease the volume)

7.1.2 Question in Cloze passage
1.     Teacher gets the students into groups of 5.
2.     They are given a cloze passage.(refer below)
3.     When they arrive at the underlined phrases, they must find the word that carries the equivalent definition to the phrase.
4.     They show the word or task that carries the similar meaning to the phrases underlined.
This is the passage:
Salleh has given away 4 out of 5 marbles he has to Kalam. How many does he has now ? Kamal has added 2 marbles to his marbles. How many does he has now ? Kamal lost 3 marbles. How many does he has now ? 6 students went and see Kamal and each give him two marbles. How many does he has now ? Kamal give away equally all his marbles to three friends. How many marbles does Kamal has now ? How many marbles do each of his friend has ?

7.2.1 Misunderstanding on terms
Students are given the time to utter the multiplication facts
7.2.2 The Animal Farm
  1. The teacher helps them by showing to them animals that represent a value
  2. The students are shown 3 kinds of pictures.(refer below)
  3. Teacher asks a question such as : what is 4 X 5 ? and gives them 5 seconds to answer.  The students answers and makes the sound and act like a cat if they answer in more than 5 seconds or they did not answer at all. If they did not know the answer, teacher shows 2 replicas of a cat. The students will guess the number must be 20, because 2 cats equals to ten times two equals to twenty.

Picture of a cat, a hen and a bird. Each carries a different value from one another. The Cat has 10 in value, the hen has 5 in value and the bird carries 1 in value.

7.3 Inability to memorise times-table
  1. Students are divided into groups of 5.
  2. They are given a set of questions to answer. They are given the cards containing numerical values.(refer below)
  3. When they are given a question, they collect the cards; according to the amount it is multiplied. Then, they do addition for all the values of the cards. What is 4 X 5 ?
(refer below)
  1. They take 5 cards and count the total values and they answer twenty.

Cut these cards out

                        +                                  +                      +                                  +
            =4                    =8                                =12                              =16                  =20

7.4 Students do not regroup the numbers
  1. Students are separated into groups of 5. They are given 5 questions. They are taught on the algorithm of multiplication (see below).
  2. They attempt the first question what is two hundred thirty four times three ? They arrange the cards on the rubber mat so it represents a written work of the algorithm.
  3. The students present how do they settle the maths problem on the white board.
  4. Teacher checks the answers and rearranges the numbers if there are mistakes.
 (refer attachment 1)
This method prevents the students from forgetting to add the number on top of the tens and hundreds numbers. It uses a different solution on the whole. Instead of writing the numbers small on top, this time it uses the box system . The students do not add any numbers on top, because there is no small numbers on top of the tens and hundreds. They must understand to write the value of the digit correctly. The digit value will be multiplied and the answers will be written inside the box provided.

8.0 Conclusion
After doing this action research, I see improvements in the results, where the students’ interest in learning Maths, especially multiplication improves and their mars also gets better. I propose the four methods to other teachers and it is hoped that this action research will benefit other classes as well.

  1. Dr Mahmood Othman. (2011).HMBT3103 Teaching Mathematics in Year Four. Kuala Lumpur . Open University Malaysia
  2. Wan Yusof Wan Ngah et al. (2005). Mathematics Teachers Guidebook Year 4. Kuala Lumpur. Dewan Bahasa Dan Pustaka


Attachment 1








234 x 3 = 600 + 90 + 12
= 702

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